Annex A - Group Research Proposal

Group Project Proposal (Science)


Names: Tony & Jun Hua

Class: S2-03______

Group Reference: A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H  / J /  K  / L /  M  

A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

[    ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
e.g. Investigation of the anti-bacteria effect of chrysanthemum

X   ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography

[  ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
e.g. Investigation of the effect of temperature on the growth of crystals

[    ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene 

[    ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  

  1. Type & Category

Type of research: 2                                (Write down one number from 1 to 6)

Category  – 19                                        (Write down one number from 7 to 20)

Sub-category –  b                                   (Write down the sub-heading alphabet)

Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:
World. It will help scientists on further research on Jupiter. It also can help other find the masses of other planets using the same formula as if the result is correct while using Kepler’s Third Law then it can help astronomers find the mass of planets maybe easier.

C.    Write down your research title:

Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography
Finding the period of the moons of jupiter using planetary photography.

D.   (a) Aim / question being addressed 

Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system and is more than twice the mass of all the other solar system planets, dwarf planets, moons and asteroids combined. But how do can we find Jupiter’s mass?

(b) Independent variable

The independent variable is the period of the moons

(c) Dependent variable

The dependent variable is the distance between the positions of Jupiter’s moons and Jupiter.

(d) Controlled variables

(a)  The magnification of the photo
(b) The same time when observing (9pm) that the pictures are taken over two weeks.
(c) The same sky conditions

      (e) Hypotheses

The mass of jupiter is more than the mass of earth.

E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)

(a) Equipment list:
-       Telescope
-       Camera
-       Learning Device
-    Calculator

(b) Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection

  • Find the distance of the moons C G E I from the centre of Jupiter in pixels from the photos taken from
  • Find the diameter of Jupiter from the photos.
  • Divide the real diameter of Jupiter with the diameter of Jupiter in pixels to find the length of 1 pixel in the photos
  • Multiply the length of 1 pixel with the distance of the moon from Jupiter in pixels to find the real distance.
  •  Repeat the same steps for all the moons and average the answer.

(c) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

Telescope might drop on foot while observing.
Students should not put foot under telescope and even so should still be cautious around telescope.
Might be too dark and dangerous
Turn on background lights.
Do not play pranks while observing
Try not to do it and remind ourselves of the danger and consequence by doing so.
Might fall off balcony.
Try to stay as far away from the edge while still being able to observe clearly.

(d) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses

  1. Merge the all the photos together into 1 to see the movement of the moons
  2. Plot a graph of the distance of the moon from jupiter (y) against time (x)
  3. Use the formula M=4pi^2a^3/GP^2
  • a is the semi-major axis (radius) of the orbit of the moon
  • p is the period of the moon
  • g = 6.67 x 10-11 m3/kg-sec2   
  • M is the mass of Jupiter

         F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.

(a) Books

Carrol, Bradley, Ostile, Dale (1996) ; An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics : Addison-Wesley

(b) Journals

Virginia Marcus (July 26, 2009).  Computing the Mass of Jupiter Based on the Orbit of Jupiter’s Four Main Moons Retrieved from

(c) Websites

San Jose State University(2016). Kepler’s Third Law and the Mass of Jupiter. Retrieved from

Nathan Kelley (June 4, 2004).Determining the Mass of Jupiter Based on the Orbital Characteristics of the Galilean Moons. Retrieved from

Rosa M. Ros - Ederlinda ViƱuales "EAAE Summerschools" Working Group Technical University of Catalonia - University of Zaragoza (Spain)(2016). Determination of Jupiter’s Mass. Retrieved from

Data table (pixels)
Jupiter’s Diameter
30/9 22:00

14/10 21:15

14/10 23:00

15/10 19:15

15/10 21:00

15/10 22:45

22/10 21:00

Not Mentioned

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